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What is the difference between a transmitter, intelligent sensor and sensor controller?

Sensors in an HVAC environment

The main difference is the functionality or the behavior of the output.
Sentera offers devices to measure, to regulate or to control following parameters: temperature, relative humidity, CO2, air quality or VOC, Toxic gases (CO, NO2, LPG) ambient light, differential pressure, air volume flow or air velocity.
transmitter or sensor is a device that measures a certain parameter. The device translates the measured value(s) into analogue output(s) or Modbus RTU register(s).
E.g. a temperature and relative humidity sensor will transfer both measured values into two separate 0-10 Volt output signals:
 Transmitter output
An intelligent sensor has the possibility to define a range for each of the measured values. Intelligent sensors have only one output. This output is regulated to keep the measured values within their predefined ranges.
When all measured values are at their minimum range, the sensor output will remain at its minimum value. When one of the measured values approaches the maximum range, the sensor output will also increase towards its maximum value. Intelligent sensors are typically used for demand based ventilation or demand based fan speed control.
E.g.: an intelligent temperature - relative humidity sensor regulates its output to keep temperature and relative humidity within range. The output (AO1) changes automatically depending on the highest of the temperature or relative humidity values, i.e. the highest of two output values controls the output:
 Intelligent sensor
A sensor controller offers the possibility to define a setpoint. The PI algorithm controls the analogue output to maintain the measured value at the setpoint value. This functionality is typically used to control differential pressure or air volume flows.
E.g.: the differential pressure controller controls the 0-10 Volt output to maintain the measured value at the requested setpoint.
PI controller 
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